For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft. To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology. Study Kwik eLearning module of Aviation Meteorology helps the PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants to understand & apply the concept of winds when flying.
1. Turbulence is of two types: Frictional & Thermal.
2. When the speed of the stream is low, the flow is smooth or laminar, but when speed surpasses a certain limit the flow becomes unstable. Eddies form and drift away into the stream, making the flow turbulent.
3. The thermal type of turbulence is caused by the convection currents due to the surface heating. The heating may result from insolation over the land or from passage of a relatively cool mass of air over warmer land or sea surface.
Factors affecting Turbulence:
1. Buildings, trees, & rugged terrain.
2. Eddies so created involve both horizontal & vertical velocities. They develop more easily when lapse rate is steep. Open sea, smooth ground, light wind and stable lapse rate are unfavorable for turbulence.